Cohen’s mission was to infiltrate the Arab diaspora in Buenos Aires. With this goal in mind, he became a regular guest at various functions hosted by the community. To draw attention to himself, Cohen made a reputation for himself as someone who wore expensive clothes and spent his cash lavishly.
According to Steiner, Eli’s efforts proved a resounding success, allowing him to get quite close to the Argentinian Syrian diaspora’s elite, and through them, to important contacts in Syria.
“Introducing himself as a major merchant…he was able to meet people who in turn introduced him to important figures from political and military circles in Syria; as a result he was invited to attend various events with the involvement of prominent figures from the Arab community. This sort of infiltration was possible thanks to his safe cover story,” the journalist noted.
In his article on Cohen, Steiner noted that the success of his mission was based on his “charisma and generous wallet,” as well as an extensive network of contacts, including the head of Mundo Arabe, a widely read and respected newspaper among Latin America’s Arab community.The latter acquaintance gave Cohen access to receptions by the Syrian Embassy in Buenos Aires, and it was here that he would meet General Amin Hafiz, Syria’s military attaché to Argentina and the future president of the Syrian Republic.
In one of his discussions with the director of Mundo Arabe, Cohen ”confessed” that he would like to return to Syria to support the development of his home country.
Road to Damascus
Preparing for his ”homecoming,” Cohen secretly went back to Israel via Zurich, meeting up with his family and studying up on Syria.
“He returned to Israel for three weeks because of our father’s death,” Albert said. “After a period of mourning, he left Israel and headed to Italy, where he traveled by boat to Alexandria. From there, he continued by ship to Beirut, Lebanon.”
According to Cohen’s brother, Eli was accompanied to Syria by a local agent who, after Cohen’s arrival in Lebanon, traveled with him to the Syrian border, where they bribed a border guard and entered the country.”As it turned out, crossing the border did not prove very difficult, since it was not so heavily guarded,” Albert noted, recalling his brother’s story. “And so, after finding themselves on Syrian territory, they set off for Damascus.”
Eli settled in the Syrian capital in 1962, where the contacts gained in Argentina came to good use.
First and foremost, this involved communication with General Amin Hafiz, who rose to the presidency in a coup in 1963 and saw in Cohen, or ‘Kamel Amin Thaabet’ as he knew him, a well-educated person, a patriot, a good host, and a successful businessman willing to invest in Syria.
“Anyone who wants to be a good liar must have an excellent memory,” Albert said. “Eli had a phenomenal memory, and it was this that allowed him to deceive his enemies and carry out a charade which saw him fooling Syria’s top leadership.”
The spy’s brother showed Sputnik the protocol of his brother’s testimony in court following his capture, and said that it showed just how deeply the Israeli agent was able to infiltrate into the highest circles of Syrian politics.”I managed to infiltrate several ministries and other government agencies. Among them were the ministry of defense, the economy ministry, the ministry of information, the ministry of municipal affairs, the central bank, and others,” Eli’s testimony to a Syrian tribunal read.
With the help of trusting sources freely willing to provide information to him, Cohen transmitted invaluable details about the political, economic and military situation in Syria in the early 1960s.
Particularly valuable was the information he obtained about Syria’s military cooperation with Iraq, secret information about Soviet arms supplies to Damascus, as well as the dislocation of the Syrian Armed Forces, including its artillery and fortifications in the Golan Heights.
Cohen was also able to expose Syria’s plans to divert the flow of the Jordan River to deprive Israel of one of its main sources of freshwater.
In addition to this data, the spy regularly sent images, military maps and other documents of enormous strategic importance to Tel Aviv.
Levi Eshkol, who served as Israel’s prime minister between 1963 to 1969, offered heavy praise for Cohen, saying that the spy’s efforts “saved the lives of many Israel soldiers, while the information he provided proved priceless and helped the country win an overwhelming victory in the Six-Day War.”
Taking place between June 5 and June 10 1967, the Six Day War began when Israel launched airstrikes against Egypt, wiping out the Egyptian air force and pitting the two countries against one another, with Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon joining the war in the days to follow, only to be beaten by an Israeli military enjoying superior leadership, training and intelligence. The war ended with Israel’s occupation of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights and the entire Sinai Peninsula, which Egypt would win back in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
In Israeli and Western historiography, it is often said that Cohen had a chance at becoming Syria’s deputy defense minister, and that his name was even considered for the presidency. However, Syrian political expert and Israel watcher Tahsin Halabi denies that this was the case. Speaking to Sputnik, the observer said that the spy’s successes have been overstated.
“The reports that Eli Cohen almost became the president or the defense minister is a repetition of a myth which Israeli intelligence has spread about itself, creating an image of an omnipotent structure able to control any political or military system on the planet,” Halabi explained.
Exposure and Execution
Cohen was detained by Syrian intelligence in his apartment in January 1965. A month later the spy was tried and sentenced to death. He was hanged on May 18, 1965 in a square in Damascus, his body left to hang for six hours.
Yakov Kedmi, an Israeli political commentator and former head of the Nativ security service, spoke to Sputnik about the details of the spy’s detention and execution.
“The issue of his exposure and demise has been repeatedly and deeply analyzed by Mossad and the Israeli intelligence community as a whole. However, the Soviet role in this operation is quite interesting, and involves the delivery of special devices to intercept radio waves,” Kedmi said.
According to Kedmi, Israeli investigations have also made clear that Cohen committed certain errors, and that these, along with Soviet equipment, culminated in his downfall.
With the official story shrouded in mystery, even after half a century, Albert Cohen told Sputnik that there were three possible reasons for his brother’s unmasking.
According to the first, which was voiced by President Amin Hafiz after Cohen’s capture, the Indian embassy in Damascus had complained of interference in radio communications with New Delhi. This led to an investigation, which culminated in the use of the advanced Soviet radio equipment to pinpoint the source, and allowed the Syrian security services to catch Eli Cohen red-handed while he was transmitting information by radio from his apartment.
Egyptian intelligence, on the other hand, has claimed that Cohen was first noticed by its personnel in a photo of a meeting of the Syrian and Egyptian general staff in the Golan Heights, with the Egyptian side later identifying him as an Israeli spy.The third, and most detailed version, has been presented by Ahmad Suwaidani, the former head of Syrian intelligence. According to the spymaster, in the early 1960s, Syrian counterintelligence became aware of two Syrians believed to be working for the CIA and secretly planning to smuggle missiles which Damascus had received from the USSR to Cyprus. After seven months of observation, the special services noted that both suspects had been frequent guests at Cohen’s apartment.
These men were caught in late 1964, after which Cohen himself came under surveillance, and were tried for treason and executed in Damascus in February 1965.
According to Suwaidani’s version of events, the security forces did indeed break into Cohen’s apartment on January 18, 1965, but found him listening to the radio, not transferring information. During their search of the residence, investigators found a radio transmitter and other suspicious items.
Albert Cohen recalled that Syrian court records mentioned that Eli and a fellow conspirator had told a Syrian Navy officer that the Americans were willing to pay $50,000 for information about the Syrian Navy. This was used to accuse Eli of cooperating with US intelligence.
Cohen’s brother also pointed out that Syria announced Eli’s capture on January 22, 1965, just five days after his arrest. This, he said, leads him to conclude that the Syrians had suspected him for much longer.
Albert agrees with Suwaidani’s assessment that it was the arrest of the two Arabs working for the CIA which proved the beginning of the end for his brother.
Over fifty years on, the Syrian side has refused to send Cohen’s body home to his family in Israel.
Yakov Kedmi believes the Syrian government’s refusal is related to the fact that they don’t actually know his whereabouts anymore. “Israel has repeatedly tried to establish the location of his grave and has conducted negotiations, but the truth is Damascus simply doesn’t know where Eli Cohen’s body is. In a situation of civil war, it has proven impossible to find his body. If Syria’s refusal may have at first been political, today they are simply unable to find the grave,” Kedmi said.
Immortal Hero to Some, Eternal Enemy to Others
In Israel, Eli Cohen is seen as an iconic figure, a national hero and the most successful spy in the country’s history. Albert Cohen says his brother was fearless. “Eli Cohen was a brave fighter, an unknown soldier in the service of the Israeli state. He was a soldier without a uniform, and will forever remain a national hero in our collective memory.”
Tahsin Halabi, in turn, believes Cohen’s mission was to destroy Syria.
“Since 1949, the United States attempted several times to stage a coup in Syria, but all its attempts failed,” the Syrian political observer said. “The Americans were not satisfied with the Syrian government, which had established good relations with the Soviet Union. Amid its failure, the CIA delegated the task of the destruction of the Syrian state. It was for this reason that Eli Cohen was sent to Syria.”
Ex-Nativ chief Yakov Kedmi argues that ultimately, Cohen was successful. “Cohen is one of Israel’s most successful spies, and he paid for it with his life,” he said. “In any country, such a person would be considered a national hero, and the whole of Israel honors his memory.”